Stories approximately treacherous Jesuits and scheming popes are an incredible and pervasive a part of ecu tradition. They belong to a suite of rules, photos, and practices that, while grouped lower than the label anti-Catholicism, characterize a phenomenon that may be traced again to the Reformation. Anti-Catholic pursuits and sentiments crossed barriers among eu nations, contributing to the early glossy consolidation of nationwide identities. within the 19th century, secularist hobbies followed and reworked confessional feedback in a brand new internationalist measurement that was once articulated around the complete Western global. a number of liberal, conservative, secular, Protestant, and different forces gave form to this counter-image, taking over the functionality of a development from which one's personal beliefs and ideology may be chiselled out. The contributions to this quantity exhibit how assorted nationwide contexts affected the proliferation of anti-Catholic messages over the process 4 centuries of ecu heritage, and display that anti-Catholicism constituted a robust ecu cross-cultural phenomenon.
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